2 Crop farming – Inter cropping

2 Crop farming

2 Crop Farming

Intercropping is multiple cropping practices 2 Crop farming involving growing two or more crops in proximity. The most common goal of intercropping is to produce a greater yield on a given piece of land. By making use of resources or ecological processes, do not use it in a single crop. 

Potential benefits:

Careful planning is required, taking into account the soil, climate, crops, and varieties. It is particularly important not to have crops competing with each other for physical space, nutrients, water, or sunlight. Examples of intercropping strategies are planting a deep-rooted crop with a shallow-rooted crop, or planting a tall crop with a shorter crop that requires partial shade. Use Inga alley cropping as an alternative to the ecological destruction of slash-and-burn farming.

When you select crops carefully, can achieve other agronomic benefits as well.

Mutualism:

Planting two crops in close proximity can especially be beneficial when the two plants interact in a way that increases one or both of the plant’s fitness (and therefore yield). For example, plants that are prone to tip over in wind or heavy rain (lodging-prone plants), may be given structural support by their companion crop. Climbing plants can also benefit from structural support. Some plants can use to suppress weeds or provide nutrients. Delicate or light-sensitive plants may give shade or protection, or Utilize otherwise wasted space. An example is the tropical multi-tier system where coconut occupies the upper tier, banana the middle tier, and pineapple, ginger, or leguminous fodder, medicinal or aromatic plants occupy the lowest tier.

2 Crop farming – Intercropping of compatible plants can also encourage biodiversity. By providing a habitat for a variety of insects and soil organisms that would not be present in a single-crop environment. These organisms may provide crops valuable nutrients, such as through nitrogen fixation.

Pest management – for 2 Crop farming

There are several ways in which increasing crop diversity help improving pest management. For example, such practices may limit outbreaks of crop pests by increasing predator biodiversity. Additionally, reducing the homogeneity of the crop can potentially increase the barriers against biological dispersal of pest organisms.

There are several ways to control pests through intercropping:

Trap cropping; this involves planting a crop nearby that is more attractive for pests compared to the production crop. The pests will target this crop and not the production crop.
Repellant intercrops use an intercrop that has a repellent effect to certain pests. This system involved the repellant crop masking the smell of the production crop in order to keep pests away from it.

Push-pull cropping, this is a mixture of trap cropping and repellant intercropping. An attractant crop attracts the pest and a repellant crop use to repel the pest away.
The degree of spatial and temporal overlap in the two crops can vary somewhat. However, both requirements must meet for a cropping system to be an intercrop. Numerous types of intercropping, all of which vary the temporal and spatial mixture to some degree, have been identified. These are some of the more significant types:

Mixed intercropping,

As the name implies, is the most basic form in which totally mix the component crops in the available space. Row cropping involves the component crops arranged in alternate rows. Variations include alley cropping, Grow crops in between rows of trees, and strip cropping. Where multiple rows, or a strip, of one crop, are alternated with multiple rows of another crop. A new version of this is to intercrop rows of solar photovoltaic modules with agriculture crops. This practice is agrivoltaics.

Temporal intercropping uses the practice of sowing a fast-growing crop with a slow-growing crop. So that Harvest the fast-growing crop before, the slow-growing crop starts to mature.
Further, find temporal separation in relay cropping, where sow second crop during the growth. Often near the onset of reproductive development or fruiting, of the first crop, so harvest the first crop to make room for the full development of the second.

Limitations:

Intercropping to reduce pest damage in agriculture designed with varying success. For example, while trap cropping has reduced pest densities at a commercial in experiments, it often fails to decrease pest densities deployed in large-scale commercial landscapes. Furthermore, increasing crop diversity through intercropping does not necessarily increase the presence of the predators of crop pests. In a systematic review of the literature, in 2008, in the studies examined, predators of pests tended only increased under crop diversification strategies in 53 percent of studies, and crop diversification only led to increased yield in only 32% of the studies.

Content source – Wikipedia – – https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intercropping

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